Sunday, 16 May 2010

sociology family statistics to learn

1928- All women get the vote- 1918 five million women got vote dependent on age and property.
2003= fathers have the right to 2 weeks paternity pay
40,000 children taken into care in 2003.
2002 average house price was 128,000 pounds
Pre industrial times average life expectancy was 45-50 years. Now it is 75 for men and 8- for women.

43% of Black households are headed by a lone parent.

In the UK in 1901, there were 360,000 marriages for a total population of 38 million; in 2001 ina population of 58 million, there were 286,000 marriages. This would signify a decrease in popularity for marriage.

In 2001 the average age for marriage for women was 28, for men it was 30.

Average marriage costs approx 15,000 pounds.

1857 Divorce Act allowed divorce for adultery.

1949 Legal aid was made available for couples getting divorced.

1923 Matrimonial Causes Act made divorce the same for men and women.

1937 Herbert Act added a range of grounds for divorce.

1969-1971 divorce could be achieved within two years if both partners consented. Five years if not. Irretrivable breakdown became the only term.

1996-2000 Fmaily Law act tried to amke divorce less confrontational introducing a range of ideas e.g. cooling off period, no fault divorce, counselling.

90% of divorcees remarry

Family Expenditure Survery from 2000 showed that the average spend on a child was 52 pounds a week.

20,315 is what it averagely costs to have a baby for the first five years.

In 1999 it was found that 50% of working parents rely on grandparents for child care because of rising child care costs, working parents, more active grandparents etc.

In 1999 nearly 40% of female murder victims were killed by their current or past partner. This figure compared with men is 6%

Zero Tolerance charitable trust found in 1998 20% of young men claimed abuse or violence against women was acceptable in some circumstances.

In 2002, the majority of victims according to the 2002 British Crime Survey were female.

In 1972 the minimum age a child could leave school was raised to 16.

Children can legally work 12 hours a week between ages of 13-16.

In 2002, 25% of unmarried adults aged 15-59 reported to be living in a cohabiting relationship.

11% of Asian families were headed by a lone parent.

1991- Marital Rape Law
1945-1950= Welfare state introduced

DIVORCE REFORM ACT- Led to no one receiving the blame for break up of marriage

The Family Law Act- tried to make divorce a less confrontational issue – have to meet certain terms first e.g. marriage counselling

1998 23% OF HOUSEHOLDS were nuclear
28% in 1998 were single parent households.
Social trends found in 1991 that there were 500,000 step families with dependent children in Britain.
In 1997 67% of marriages were civil ceremonies

22,000 more places authorised as marriage places- other than a church. Proving point about secularisation.


Help with the cost of your child's education

Whether your child is going to school, college or university, help is available with the costs of their education.
Help with pre-school costs
Every three and four year old child in England is entitled to free part-time early education.
If you are a working parent, lone parent or student, you may be entitled to extra help with the cost of early education and childcare.
• Help with pre-school costs
Help with school costs
All children in England between the ages of five and 16 are entitled to a free place at a state school.
Depending on your circumstances, extra help might be available for with the costs of school meals, uniform or transport.
Free school lunches and milk
If you receive income support, Jobseekers Allowance or certain other benefits, your child could be entitled to free school meals.
To find out more and apply online, follow the link below.
• School lunches and nutrition
Help with uniform costs
Families who are on benefits or on low income could be entitled to clothing grants or vouchers from their local authorities to assist with the cost of school clothing.
To find out more and apply online, follow the link below.
• School uniform
Free school transport
If the nearest suitable school for your child lies beyond a set distance, your local authority must provide free transport.
To find out more and apply online, follow the link below.
• School transport
Help with sixth form and further education costs
If your child wishes to stay on in school, college or training after GCSEs, they could be eligible for Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA). EMA is a weekly payment of up to £30 a week, depending on household income, which is paid directly into your child's bank account.
If you claim benefits, these will not be affected by any EMA payments.
Follow the link below to learn more about EMA and find out if your child is eligible.
• EMA: the facts for parents and carers
Help with other costs from 16 to 19
Other types of financial help for young students include special funding for dance and drama courses, help with transport costs, and help for children needing childcare or studying abroad.
Click on the link below to find out about all the help available for those staying in education after 16.
• Financial help for young people in education or training (young people section)
Claiming benefits for over 16s in full time education
If your child is aged between 16 and 19 and is still in full time education, or on a work-based employment programme, then you can still claim Child Benefit, Child Tax Credits, and any other benefits for dependants you may receive.
If your child's course continues after they reach 19, you can continue to get Child Benefit and Child Tax Credits. But once they complete their course or they reach 20, you will stop receiving these and any other dependants' benefits.
• Information on other benefits for parents
Help with university and higher education costs
Help for students in university or higher education include student loans, grants and bursaries.
To find out more about student finance, click on the link below.

Sure Start Maternity Grants (the Social Fund)
A Sure Start Maternity Grant is a payment of £500 which does not have to be paid back.
To qualify you or your partner must be receiving income based Jobseeker's Allowance, Income Support, Pension Credit, Child Tax Credit at a rate higher than the family element, or Working Tax Credit where a disabled worker is included in the assessment.
You should claim:
• anytime from 11 weeks before the week the baby is due until three months after the baby is born
• if you are adopting - you should claim within three months of adopting and your baby must be under 12 months at the date of your claim
• if your baby is born by surrogacy - you should claim within three months of the order being made and you and your partner must have a parental order
Ask at your local Jobcentre Plus office, Social Security office or at the Pension Service for the SF100 Sure Start form to claim.
• More information on Maternity Grants and to download a form Opens new window
• Sure Start Maternity Grant (money, tax and benefits section)
Funeral Payment (the Social Fund)
A Funeral Payment can help with the essential costs of a funeral, which you or your partner are responsible for arranging.
To qualify you or your partner must be receiving income based Jobseeker's Allowance, Income Support, Pension Credit, Child Tax Credit at a rate higher than the family element, or Working Tax Credit where a disabled worker is included in the assessment.
The payment is recoverable from any money available form the deceased person's estate.
Ask at your local Jobcentre Plus for a claim form and more information.
• More information on Funeral Payments (money, tax and benefits section)
• Advice on arranging a funeral and other responsibilities after someone dies (government, citizens and rights section)
Community Care Grants (the Social Fund)
A Community Care Grant (from £30 up to £1,000) does not have to be paid back.
To be eligible you must be getting Income Support or income based Jobseeker's Allowance, Pension Credit, or payment on account of one of these, or are likely to get one of these benefits or entitlements when you move out of residential or institutional accommodation.
Grants may be awarded to help people:
• who are leaving accommodation in which they receive care
• continue to live in the community
• on a resettlement programme to set up home
Grants can also be awarded to help ease exceptional pressures on families, to care for a prisoner or young offender released on temporary licence, or to help with certain travel costs.
Ask at your local Jobcentre Plus for a claim form and more information.
• More information on Community Care Grants (money, tax and benefits section)
Budgeting Loans (the Social Fund)
Budgeting loans are interest-free (from £30 up to £1,000 in total) for the cost of things other than regular expenses (eg furniture, household equipment, clothing, footwear, things to help you look for or start work).
To be eligible you or your partner must have been getting Income Support or income based Jobseeker's Allowance, Pension Credit, or payment on account of one of these, for at least 26 weeks.
Ask at your local Jobcentre Plus for a claim form and more information.
• More information on Budgeting Loans (money, tax and benefits section)
Crisis Loans (the Social Fund)
Crisis Loans are interest-free and can help if there is a serious risk to the health and safety of you or your family following an emergency or disaster. You do not need to be getting any benefits but you must be over the age of 16. Whether you can get a Crisis Loan will depend on your particular circumstances.
Ask at your local Jobcentre Plus for a claim form and more information.
• More information on Crisis Loans (money, tax and benefits section)
Tax credits
Tax credits are payments from the government. If you're responsible for at least one child or young person who normally lives with you, you may qualify for Child Tax Credit. If you work, but earn low wages, you may qualify for Working Tax Credit.
The amount of tax credits you get depends on things like:
• how many children you have living with you
• whether you work - and how many hours you work
• if you pay for childcare
• if you or any child living with you has a disability
• if you're aged 50 plus and are coming off benefits
Your payments also depend on your income. The lower your income, the more tax credits you can get.
• Tax credits (money, tax and benefits section)
Widowed Parent's Allowance

If you’re a parent whose husband, wife or civil partner has died and you have at least one child who you receive Child Benefit for, you may be able to get Widowed Parent's Allowance (WPA).
Who can claim?
You may get WPA if all the following apply:
• you're bringing up a child or young person under 19 (or under 20 in some cases for whom you're getting Child Benefit
• you're under State Pension age (60 for women and 65 for men)
• your husband, wife or civil partner died
• your husband, wife or civil partner paid National Insurance contributions (NICs)
You may also claim WPA if:
• you're expecting your late husband's baby or your late civil partner's baby (with whom you were pregnant from fertility treatment)
• your husband, wife or civil partner died as a result of their work - even if they didn't pay NICs
• Industrial Injuries Disablement Benefit (diseases and deafness)
Who can't claim?
You can't claim if:
• you were divorced from your husband or wife or the civil partnership had dissolved when the civil partner died
• you remarry or are living with a partner as husband and wife or as if you had formed a civil partnership
• you're in prison
How much do you get?
£95.25 a week is the maximum basic allowance of Widowed Parent’s Allowance. There may be an entitlement to additional pension.
What is Child Benefit?

Child Benefit is a tax-free payment that you can claim for your child. It is usually paid every four weeks but in some cases can be paid weekly, and there are separate rates for each child. The payment can be claimed by anyone who qualifies, whatever their income or savings.
Who can get Child Benefit?
You may be able to get Child Benefit if any of the following apply:
• your child is under 16
• your child is over 16 and in education or training that qualifies for Child Benefit
• your child is 16 or 17, has left education or training that qualifies for Child Benefit and is registered for work, education or training with an approved body
You can get Child Benefit even if your child doesn’t live with you. However, if they live with someone else, you can only get Child Benefit if:
• you pay towards the upkeep of your child
• what you pay is at least the same as the amount of Child Benefit you get for your child
• the person bringing up your child is not getting Child Benefit for them - if you and another person both claim Child Benefit for the same child, only one of you can get it
You can also get Child Benefit for a child even if you are not their parent, but you have to be responsible for them to qualify.
How much Child Benefit will you get?
There are two separate amounts, with a higher amount for your eldest (or only) child. You get £20.00 a week for your eldest child and £13.20 a week for each of your other children.

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